Miscarriage and hormone deficiency

Miscarriage can be caused by a number of factors including chromosome abnormalities, infections, immune disorder, anatomical abnormalities of the uterus, systemic illnesses, hormonal imbalance and substance abuse.


Effects of hormones on Miscarriage


Oestrogen and progesterone are two of the primary female sex hormones. During a normal menstrual cycle, they take turns driving the process of maturing and releasing an egg and preparing the uterus for possible pregnancy. Oestrogen rises in the first half of the cycle, peaks at ovulation and then falls in the second half as progesterone rises. Progesterone is released by the rupturing of the egg follicle during ovulation. Testosterone too is secreted in surges around the time of ovulation.


When oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone are doing their jobs, they work well together. How much or how little of each hormone is made at any one time relies on a complicated feedback system between the brain specifically the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland which releases LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), the ovaries and the adrenal glands. Stress and diet affect these feedback mechanisms and so directly impact the hormonal balance.


At the time of ovulation, progesterone is responsible for an increase in body temperature, which lasts during most of the luteal phase. Low progesterone is a common cause of infertility in women. Progesterone is responsible for creating a proper environment for a fetus and its levels are supposed to increase upon fertilization of the egg. The hormone then supports the pregnancy by increasing tissue development in the uterus where the embryo will attach. If progesterone levels are low in the first several weeks of pregnancy, a miscarriage is likely to occur.


By about 8-9 weeks of pregnancy, the placenta usually takes over the production of progesterone.



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All Aillo products are carefully hand blended by a qualified therapist to ensure upmost quality and consistency.

Brain-Gut Axis Connection – by Naveed

Brain-gut axis signifies the relationship between events that affect the function of the central nervous system (brain) and the influence these factors ultimately have on the function of the intestines via the specialised enteric nervous system of the intestine.


The three key players in the brain-gut axis include gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS)


During early fetal development both the gut (esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon) and the primary brain start to develop from the same clump of embryonic tissue. When this piece of tissue is divided, one piece grows into the brain or the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the other section becomes the gut or the Enteric Nervous System (ENS).


During later stages of fetal development, these two brains then become connected via a massive nerve called the vagus nerve. The vagus nerve is the longest of all our cranial nerves and creates a direct connection between the brain and the gut. Because of this direct brain-gut connection, the state of the gut has a profound influence on our psychological well being.


In recent years, the link between the nervous system and the digestive system has been recognized. It has been shown that is a constant exchange of chemicals and electrical messages between the two systems and many scientists now often refer to them as one entity ‘the brain-gut axis’. Therefore, what affects the bowel will directly affect the brain and vice versa.


The gut’s brain, known as the enteric nervous system (ENS) is located in sheaths of tissue lining the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon. Considered as a single entity, it is packed with neurons, neurotransmitters and proteins that zap messages between neurons or support cells like those found in the brain.


The means by which one nerve cell communicates with the next is through chemicals called neurotransmitters. An extremely important neurotransmitter for digestive functioning is serotonin (5-HT). It is estimated that up to 95% of the serotonin in the human body is found in the digestive tract. Serotonin is considered to be a vital part of the communication system between the brain and the gut. Serotonin seems to play a part in motility, sensitivity and secretion of fluids. Movement, pain sensitivity and the amount of fluid in the stool are all affected by it.



Allergic Reactions – Four Types

The immune system is an integral part of human protection against disease but the normally protective immune mechanisms can sometimes cause detrimental reactions in the host. All types of allergic reactions are caused by the hypersensitivity of the immune system to an allergen. Any item, chemical or substance that causes an allergic reaction is an allergen.

Different immunoglobulins (Igs) are involved in different types of allergic reactions. The main groups of Igs are IgE, IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD.


The four main types of allergic reactions are listed below along with brief explanation:


1. Type I (IgE-mediated and anaphylactic)

Type I is most commonly associated with allergic reactions to drugs such as chemotherapy medicine.  These reactions are immediate and may occur within seconds or few minutes, especially if the body has been exposed to the foreign substance before and has been ‘sensitized’.

Examples of this type of reaction are hay fever, allergic asthma, hives (urticaria), food allergies etc.


2. Type II (Cytotoxic, cell reactions)

With Type II reactions, the antibodies produced during an immune response recognise and bind to antigens (structural components of cell surfaces).  This antibody/antigen complex then activates ‘classical’ pathways in the immune system to cause inflammation at the site. This creates a defect on the cell’s surface leading to breaking open of the cell and eventually killing it.

Examples of this type of allergic reaction are transfusion reactions, autoimmune hemolytic anemia.


3. Type III (Immune-complex)

In Type III reactions, immune complexes are formed in the circulation and deposit in various tissues where they may trigger the classical pathways in the immune system.  This process may occur in hours to days from the triggering substance.

Examples of this type of allergic reaction are serum sickness, systemic lupus erythematosus immune-complex glomerulonephritis (a disorder of the kidney).


4. Type IV (cell-mediated)

This type of reaction is a delayed reaction (2-3 days) and involves activation of the T-cells of the immune system. The foreign substance is presented to the T-cells of the immune system, which recognises them and sets off a series of reactions that eventually work to destroy the targeted cells.

Examples of this type of reaction are contact dermatitis (poison ivy), rejection of a transplanted organ etc.



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  • All Aillo products are carefully hand blended by a qualified therapist to ensure upmost quality and consistency.


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